Module 1 - When you have a 7 page paper in week 1 it's not a good sign
- one or more measurable learning objectives aligned with prescribed standards (i.e. Common Core Math or ELA, or the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS),
- an appropriately scaffolded sequence of engaging and rigorous learning experiences centered around relevant, real-world phenomena, questions, or problems,
- opportunities for structured discourse paired with probing and guiding questions that stimulate higher order thinking, and
- appropriate, student-centered assessments designed to inform instruction and provide both student and teacher with frequent, meaningful feedback.
“the world is moving at a tremendous rate [and] we must prepare our children not for the world of the past – not for our world – but, for their world – the world of the future,” (Little, 2013, p.86).
Module 2 - Okay, this seems like quite a bit of work
"Teaching is not only an academic obligation, but also a moral one" (Adams, 2018, p. 121)
I am personally interested in strategies for achieving equitable instruction for all students. The first step in being an equitable educator is the ability to recognize the diverse needs of your students. So I really appreciated this graphic I found from Pappas (2013):
I also enjoyed reading literature about various learning styles. For example, the following image from LSI Analysis & Presentation (n.d.) illustrates types of activities that align with the learning style identified by Kolb: accommodating, diverging, converging, and assimilating.
Module 3 - I'm noticing a pattern here
- provide culturally responsive writing prompts that are engaging to diverse learners,
- scaffold writing tasks so that students start with shorter, easier writing assignments with a lot of teacher support and gradually move towards longer, more complex writing tasks with less teacher support, and
- chunk writing assignments into manageable sub-tasks based on the reading and writing ability of each student (Saulnier, 2016).
Module 4 - Wait, you want me to do what?
That said, let's check out my key take-aways!
First of all, the UDL framework outlines steps for planning instruction that meets the diverse needs of all learners in the classroom in order to achieve equitable instruction for everyone. I often use the following image from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2021) when leading professional development to get teachers to think about the difference between equality (everyone gets the SAME thing) versus equity, everyone gets what they need in order to achieve the SAME outcome. However, this graphic refers to differentiation. We differentiate instructional strategies and resources for students so that each student gets what they need in order to support them in mastering the learning objectives. This is NOT the same as UDL, though they are related.
- Engagement involves using strategies to stimulate and motivate enthusiasm for learning.
- Representation involves using strategies to provide multiple ways for students to access and understand new information.
- Action and Expression involves using strategies to provide multiple ways for students to collaborate, synthesize, and express their learning (New Zealand’s Ministry of Education, n.d.).
The other half of this week was the teacher perception survey and action research proposal. Since this was part of an ongoing process and I created a final presentation in Week 9, I will end week 4 here and let you learn more about the action research project in subsequent sections.
Module 5 - I think I can, I think I can
But I did!
First of all, my research in preparation for the debate led me to identify the following eight types of bias that are implicit in standardized testing:
- Standardized tests rely on prior knowledge that is culturally relevant (Choi, 2020).
- Standardized tests underestimate the importance of language proficiency (Kim & Zabalina, 2015; Phillips, 2006).
- Standardized tests do not take into account the impact of cultural differences in the way language is used (Kim & Zabalina, 2015).
- Standardized tests do not take into account the impact of cultural differences in the way scenarios are interpreted (Kim & Zabalina, 2015).
- Timed tests exacerbate bias (Kim & Zabalina, 2015).
- Standardized tests do not take into account cultural differences in student motivation (Phillips, 2006).
- Standardized tests cause test-taking anxiety that is elevated in some groups due to stereotype threat (Choi, 2020).
- Standardized tests that involve human scoring are subject to subjective bias on the part of the evaluator (Kim & Zabalina, 2015; Phillips, 2006).
- Collect data from teachers about their perceptions regarding evidence-based instructional strategies for diverse learners, and their current use of these strategies in the classroom.
- Identify high-quality, research-based instructional practices that teachers can use to help ensure rigorous, differentiated instruction for diverse learners.
Module 6 - Okay, this is getting rediculous
- Analysis: determine the instructional goals and identify the attributes of the learner audience and learning environment.
- Design: Develop and storyboard the scaffolded learning experiences in the learning sequence, including activities, assessments, and resources.
- Develop: Build the curriculum per the specifications laid out in the design phase and test it out to ensure the design meets the objects outlined in the analysis phase.
- Implement: Train the instructor on how to use the curriculum and develop a system for collecting ongoing feedback about how well the curriculum meets learner needs.
- Evaluate: Analyze the feedback data collected throughout the implementation phase and at the end, and reflect on how to improve the curriculum moving forward.
Module 7 - Hello, is anyone out there?
Module 8 - Good Grief!
Student Engagement Indicators
Module 9 - I see a light at the end of the tunnel
Anyway, this week we had to create a audiovisual presentation sharing the results of our action research project. As anyone who has ever made a video knows, it's a lot of work. But with no further adieu, here you go...
Module 10 - I think I'm going to need a longer break
Examples of Benefits of Integrating Technology into Instruction for Diverse Learners
I also found this great little set of suggestions from Edutopia (2007)...
“When technology integration in the classroom is seamless and thoughtful, students not only become more engaged, they begin to take more control over their own learning, too. Effective tech integration changes classroom dynamics, encouraging student-centered project-based learning.” (Edutopia, 2007, para. 1)
I just want to thank all of my friends and family who put up with my text messages and Facebook posts venting about the amount of work in this class. I really do appreciate all of your encouragement!
One great thing that happened this term is that I coordinated a series of Equity in Education workshops for California teachers and I used stuff I researched each week to help inform those workshops. You can access the videos, slide decks, and any additional resources from the various workshops from this Google folder.
to share your own resources in the comments section.
- Adams, B. (2018). Toward relevant immigrant pedagogy: Teacher and student Interactions In an urban classroom. Journal of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 5, 119-135.
- American College of Education. (2019). CI6103 Curriculum and Instructional Design for Diversity: Module 1: Part 2: Reflecting on Multimodal Strategies [Presentation Transcript]. Canvas@ACE.
- Athuraliya, A. (2021). The ultimate list of graphic organizers for teachers and students. Creately. https://creately.com/blog/diagrams/types-of-graphic-organizers/.
- Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.
- Campbell, Y., & Filimon, C. (2018). Supporting the argumentative writing of students in linguistically diverse classrooms: An action research study. RMLE Online: Research in Middle Level Education, 41(1), 1–10.
- Cates, M. (n.d.). Common Core integrating with Marzano and Danielson [Slide Presentation]. Palm Beach County Schools. https://www.plan.lib.fl.us/files/MarzanoHandout1.pdf
- Cimermanová, I. (2018). The effect of learning styles on academic achievement in different forms of teaching. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 219–232.
- Choi, Y.W. (2020). How to address racial bias in standardized testing. Next Generation Learning Challenges. https://www.nextgenlearning.org/articles/racial-bias-standardized-testing.
- Cornell University. (n.d.). The Cornell note taking system. The Learning Strategies Center. https://lsc.cornell.edu/how-to-study/taking-notes/cornell-note-taking-system/.
- Doran, P. R. (2015). Language accessibility in the classroom: How UDL can promote success for linguistically diverse learners. Exceptionality Education International, 25(3), 1–12.
- Edutopia. (2007). How to integrate technology. George Lucas Foundation. https://www.edutopia.org/technology-integration-guide-implementation
- Hahn Tapper, A. J. (2013). A pedagogy of social justice education: Social identity theory, intersectionality, and empowerment. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 30(4), 411–445. https://doi.org/10.1002/crq.21072.
- Integrated Learning Strategies. (n.d.). Learning styles: Why “one size fits all” doesn’t work. https://ilslearningcorner.com/2016-02-learning-styles-one-size-fits-all-doesnt-work/
- Kain, P. (1998). How to do a close reading. Writing Center at Harvard University. https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/how-do-close-reading.
- Kim, K. H. & Zabalina, D. (2015). Cultural bias in assessment: Can creativity assessment help? International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 6(2), 129-147.
- Little, T. (2013). 21st century learning and progressive education: An intersection. International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(1), 84–96.
- LSI Analysis & Presentation. (n.d.) David A. Kolb's learning style inventory. https://lsibba310.weebly.com/introduction-to-kolb-learning-style-inventory.html
- McCarthy, G. (2015). Motivating and enabling adult learners to develop research skills. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 55(2), 309-330.
- New EdTech Classroom. (n.d.). How to use education technology in the classroom: The ultimate guide. https://newedtechclassroom.com/how-to-use-education-technology/
- New Zealand Ministry of Education. (n.d.). UDL and differentiation and how they are connected. https://inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/universal-design-for-learning/udl-and-differentiation-and-how-they-are-connected/
- Nganga, L. (2014). Multicultural curriculum in rural early childhood programs. Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, 9(1), 29–49. https://doi.org/10.9741/2161-2978.1073
- Palasigue, J. T. (2009). Integrating whole brain teaching strategies to create a more engaged learning environment. Online Submission.
- Pappas, C. (2013). The myth of learning styles. eLearning Industry. https://elearningindustry.com/the-myth-of-learning-styles
- Phillips, M. (2006). Standardized tests aren't like t-shirts: one size doesn't fit all. Multicultural Education, 14(1), 52-55.
- Picciano, A. G. (2017). Theories and frameworks for online education: Seeking an integrated model. Online Learning, 21(3), 166– 190. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v21i3.1225
- Robert Wood Johnson Foundation [@RWJF]. (2021, Jan 14). When it comes to addressing our nation's critical health challenges, the greatest opportunity for lasting change often lives within public policies that affect #healthequity and well-being [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/RWJF/status/1482016169007759360?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1482016169007759360%7Ctwgr%5E%7Ctwcon%5Es1_&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.rwjf.org%2F
- Saulnier, B. (2016). The application of writing across the curriculum (WAC) techniques in a systems analysis & design flipped classroom. Information Systems Education Journal, 14(4), 13–19.
- TeachThought. (n.d.a.). 28 student-centered instructional strategies. https://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/28-student-centered-instructional-strategies/
- TeachThought. (n.d.b.). What are Marzano’s 9 instructional strategies for teaching and learning? https://www.teachthought.com/learning/instructional-strategies/
- Tajfel, H., Turner, J. C., Austin, W. G., & Worchel, S. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. Organizational identity: A reader, 56-65.